THEME: Sustaining Momentum on Climate Action in the Pandemic Era (Aug 29 – Sep. 11, 2021).
Venue: Kenyatta University Conference Centre, Kenyatta University Main Campus, Nairobi, Kenya.
Image 1.1. An image of the organizers and participants of Nairobi summer School on climate Justice 2021 taken on Monday 30th, August during the inaugural ceremony held at Kenyatta University Amphitheatre, Kenyatta university.
The NSSCJ was a platform that brought together long-standing campaigners, activists, younger generations of climate justice advocates and participants to share experiences and perspectives and reflect on just pathways to low-carbon, climate-resilient development trajectory.
The long-term objective of the Summer School was to promote creative voices, especially from the youth, social and scientific innovations that tackle the vexed questions of environmental and climate justice, including intra and inter-generational equity. The program consisted of eight modules and a series of topics all aimed to dissect on issues around Climate Justice.
The training was done through; lecture series, simulations and presentations by renown and eminent scholars, group and focused discussions with practitioners and leading ideologues and experts on Climate Justice on the African Continent and Across the World, field outreaches were also part of the program.
|Module||Topic||Presentations and Discussions|
|Introduction to climate crisis, climate denial, “climate action” and climate justice.||Environmental and sustainable development: The Intercession||Development and Environment are inseparable. Every country has a different definition of environment in Africa but we can come to a conclusive definition. Agenda 21, a non-binding, voluntarily implementation action plan attempts to guide on how sustainable development can be reached. As Africa we need to build on that and find our ways of doing things. If we don’t protect the environment, then we are not protected because we depend on it. Climate change sounds calm, it should be climate crisis or environmental crisis. We are not able to keep with the pace to revert the damages caused by industrial revolution in the 19th century. We are trapped in the vicious cycle of poverty and Environmental degradation.|
|When the rain started beating us: The causes of climate change, indicators, impacts||We must learn from the mistakes of the previous generations. Fundamental mistakes we’ve made in Africa…we have relied on businesses and resources that have led to dependencies We need some original thinking and ideas about development in Africa. If we bring the energy we demonstrate in governance and policy, we will be a different continent. The rain is beating us because of: Poor and irresponsible leadership, corruption, ethnicity, new-colonial thoughts. Classical Colonial mentality – going to university to be employed. We need to enhance intra-African relationships and contacts/networks. #Development ought to be built around resources which are more available than those that are less available and they create less dependencies. Let’s be inspired by Bob Merley’s song “Emancipate yourself from mental slavery” Climate Change impacts the vulnerable more and makes adapting and mitigating to its effects hard. The very poor and weak are impacted more by climate change because impacts are not uniform. Economy is highly depended on climate sensitive sectors for example, agriculture, transport and industrialization. Global impacts felt locally differently by different people. WMO 2020 about Africa’s state on climate change. Dealing with it, enhancing greenhouse gas sinks (Mitigation) and adaptation to the impacts. Due to Loss and Damage, new response measure was highly recommended due to the limitations of adaptation. This includes negotiations, although it’s been rejected by the Europeans who greatly contribute to climate change. We need to look beyond the two ways of dealing with climate change. Striking a bridge or a balance between societal needs and environmental sustainability is a must do for Africa and other developing countries.|
|Background to climate change, evolution, Negotiations, interventions (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, UNFCCC etc.) The UNFCCC process, main Bodies, CBDR, tensions and agreements||Rich Nations vowed Billions for Climate Change, Poor countries are still waiting. When industrialized nations pledged in 2009 to mobilize $100 Billion a year by 2020 to help the poorest countries deal with climate change, it won over some skeptics in the developing world who had argued that rich nations should pay up for contribute so much to their problem. But the money has been slow to materialize with amount actually committed being by far less that the pledged prominent UN program called the Green Climate Fund. The Durban declaration on Carbon Trading. Representatives of the people’s movements and independent organizations rejected the claim that carbon trading will halt climate change. Excessive burning of fossil fuels has and is potting the earth’s ability to support a livable planet in jeopardy.|
|The North-South divide, ideological standpoints, Global geopolitics of climate change||Accumulation of capital periodically bursts out in crises. Only the continuous and progressive disintegration of non-capitalist relations makes accumulation of capital possible. The Lagos Plan of Action for the economic development of Africa. (1980 – 2000): African leaders committed themselves individually and collectively on behalf of their governments and people to promote the economic and social development and integration of their economies with a view to achieving an increasing measure of self-sufficiency and self-sustainment. This Plan wasn’t fully implemented. Africa must cultivate the virtue of self-reliance. Especially for resource-rich countries, the depletion of natural resources is often not compensated for by other investments. The warnings provided by negative. Adjusted Net Savings in many countries and in the region as a whole should not be ignored.” – Prof. Pattrick Bond. Political-economic dynamics in the North-South Divide. Fratz Fanon: “Each generation must discover its mission, fulfil it or betray it; it’s all up to us. “Two Degrees is Suicide: One Africa, One Degree!” “No to Climate Colonialism, No to Climate Genocide!”|
|Environmentalism and Conservation||The history of international environmental policy (Stockholm, Johannesburg and Rio Summits) and lessons from the summits and negotiations under UNFCCC. This was followed by Panel discussions:||Conservation- presentation and protection of resources so that they can also be there to meet future generation’s needs. Preliminary: -History of environmentalism, conservation and climate justice -Understand global environmental perspectives -Mount advocacy against unsustainable lifestyle -Sensitize Communities -Ramsar Convention 1971, Conference 1972, Rio Convention 1992, 2012), Johannesburg 2002, Earth Summit 1997, Montreal Protocol on Ozone Layer Depletion 1997, Millennium Development Goals 2000, Kyoto Protocol on Greenhouse gases emissions 1997, Agenda 21 (Resolutions of Rio Convention) Social and Economic Dimensions Conservation and management of resources.Strengthening the role of major groups Means of implementation Paris Climate Agreement – 2015 Political-economic dynamics Global political-economic volatility Neo-liberation and financialization (1980sn- present) Panel Discussions; Role of Academic Institutions in advancing Climate Justice Identify climate deniers Reduce fees Impacts of Climate change affects Women and Children more. Role of women leaders in influencing climate policies. Climate change is not only environmental issue but also a political issue Poverty and vulnerability; Lack of confidence; Cultural and traditions setbacks; Limited movement. Role of youth in climate justice Movement building, grassroots involvement in environmental activities.|
|Building synergies and complementarity between local and international actors on environmental policy and conservation||Ethiopian dictator Meles Zenawi, proclaimed in September 2009: “If need be we are prepared to walk out of any negotiations that threatens to be another rape of our continent”. African NGOs at the Copenhagen Climate Conference accused of Zenawi of undermining African negotiations as he was the “Chief Negotiator” but after saying the above quoted words he went ahead and backed a joint statement with French President Nicolas Srakozy. Walter Rodney on North South Power “The question as who and what is responsible for African underdevelopment can be answered at two levels. Geo-engineering… planting trees and GMO that may cause more harm than good. In 2019, Lumumba did Aping (negotiator), said that…. They had been asked to sign a suicide pact,” for which “$10 billion is not enough to buy us coffins.” He continued to say that the Copenhagen Accord was worse than no deal… he would rather die with his dignity than sign a deal that will channel his people into a furnace.” “What is” Obama going to tell his daughters? That their relatives’ lives are not worth anything? The status quo of climate policy is suicide.|
|International environmental (mal)governance, institutions and unpaid climate debts||International Climate law and governance in the era of global mistrust/Mal -governance||Over 600 MEAs hanging around. Some of them are not workable in Africa even after signing some of these agreements. If we get ignorant on what has been done on these agreements, nothing will ever get done. Asking on what has been done on the implementation of our documents is the starting point. Existing Policy, institutional and legal frameworks in Kenya, once ratified at the internal level, it becomes constitutional. They include; Constitution of Kenya 2016, Climate Change Act no. 11 of Kenya, National Climate Change Framework, National CC Response Strategy, National Climate Change Action Plan. Nationally Determined Contribution, and EMCA 1999 revised in 2015 (But it’s not yet operationalized because the CC Fund hasn’t been operationalized and the NCCC hasn’t met yet, delay of the appointment of the council members, Lack of subsidiary legislations. There is hope for doing better than we are.|
|Whither Justice in International Governance||Governance – institutions, systems, ‘rules of the game’ and other factors that determine how political and economic interaction are structured and how decisions are made and resources allocated (Griddle, 2010). Governance in a climate-challenged world… (RETHINKING). Climate change sweeps all, no boundaries. We are all under the same umbrella of danger. ~Colonialism, Industrial Revolution, Resource Transfer. History of Capitalism…Rising economic powers that wanted to control raw materials and markets throughout the world. Documents: The Looting Machine by Tom Burgis. Under developing the Amazon by Stephen Bunker. “The History of the World Seven Cheap things – A guide to capitalism, nature and the Future of the planet” emphasizing; Nature, Money, World, Care, Food, Energy and Lives. Fossil fuel costs are differently viewed by the rich and the poor,|
|Nature excursion||Visited the Karura Forest in commemoration of The Late Prof. Wangari Maathai. Solidarity outreach with environmental or climate defenders and ceremonial tree planting at Karura Forest, Nairobi. Solidarity with rights groups (Amnesty, Human Rights groups, Karura Forest Associations etc.)|
|Emerging solutions, response measures and policy options in building resilience and cities in the era of the pandemic||Renewable energy and energy transition to mitigate climate change||Without energy, there is no at least anthropogenic change. Energy production and use is the single biggest contribution to global warming accounting for roughly two-thirds of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions (UNEP). We want to make life easier and cheaper at the expense of ourselves and our own offspring! We have become selfish in the name of ‘I Don’t want my children to live the poor life I grew up’. What happens to the other gases, Nitrogen and Sulphur Oxides? Because plants alone use carbon dioxide. From power plants, oil and gasoline burning…processes that produce them. Transition involves: transition of energy sources from fossil fuels to renewable (decarbonized). Energy systems (centralized (grid) to decentralized (mini grid to off grid solutions, governance (exclusive/monopoly to participatory) and Energy usage (Intensive to Efficient). Unfortunately only the rich can afford the efficient appliances. Kenya Power owning everything and therefore can hike prices at will. Governance – Most of these leaders understand nothing about sustainability. This gives a slow uptake of Environment friendly actions and decisions. Energy efficient – using less energy to perform the same task. It is not a very efficient model to drive out gas emissions. More car owners by making cars energy efficient. Energy transition doesn’t solve Energy poverty, governance does. Energy efficiency is cheap because everyone is participating. Achieving Transition. 1. Investment. Face out the money for fossil energy development. No fossil fuel money. 2. Fossil resistance. Working actively against drilling, transporting, refining and exporting fossil fuels. 3. Re-Uptake. Increasing the share of renewable energy at all levels. Coal is a dirty lie. Who pays for this transition? Carbon foot print of a meal I take from production to the digestive system in different economic classes. Carbon dioxide is the unit of measuring greenhouse emissions. Political priorities in governance. We haven’t polluted enough! There is still a chance to keep on. What can an individual do 1. Promote. Enhancing RE-uptake for example, Demonstration projects and Research and evidence creation. 2. Resist fossil investments. Block new investments|
|Climate Finance: The Green Climate Fund, multilateral and bilateral initiatives, insurance arrangements, carbon trading Schemes and offset markets.||Enhance financial provisions to developing countries to meet NDC costs that is Africa alone needs USD 3 trillion by 2030. Climate Finance: The Green Climate Fund, the Adaptation Fund and other multilateral initiatives to advance the implementation of National Plans and Climate Commitments by Jean Paul Brice Afana, Cameroon. Climate Finance expert at IUCN ADAPT project. Making the most out of COP26 in Glasgow. “Making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate resilient development” ~Paris Agreement. Financing for development ~ Addis Ababa Action Agenda.Climate Change ~Paris AgreementSDGs…UN.Sandai framework. The 4 result in quality leadership. Challenge: Tracking measuring and reporting climate finance for the NDCs. Opportunities. Partnership to mobilize and achieve climate goals… research and explore.Other existing BDC financing tools and initiatives: OECD -Adaptation for developing countries, GIS Climate Finance Readiness, Commonwealth Climate Finance Access Hub, Quick start, Global Environmental Facility, Green Climate Fund, Adaptation Fund, The Least Development Finance.Direct Access and the support to readiness and preparatory. Civil Society engagement for climate justice. GCF, largest fund. Decided when the 100Billion annual commitment was made.|
|NATURE-BASED SOLUTIONS||Climate smart agriculture or ecological agriculture? Building climate-resilient food systems for improved livelihoods Adaptation, Safeguarding watersheds, and climate change People, Forests, Territorial Governance, Solutions and contestations Loss and damage in building long-term safeguard for people and society Green and resilient homes and cities in climate-constrained future These solutions need to mimic nature in how it works. It is important to note that afforestation is not a NbS. This means that NbS need to be clearly defined and the concept agreed upon by the different stakeholders and actors (IUCN, NGOs, CBOs and Governments).|
|Movement and alliance-building in the transition to low-carbon, climate-resilient, fair, equitable and ecologically-just development trajectory||Background, history and evolution of the concept of climate justice and the global climate justice movement||Know your constitutional rights and learn whether it is possible to bring a claim. Find a connection with a lawyer who knows domestic law and can provide advice on domestic law such as lawful versus unlawful arrests or Strategic Litigation (Lawsuit) Against Public Participation suits. Reach out to national law school. Understand what the African charter on Human and People’s rights might mean for your country. Reach out to the International Community – bring awareness to the internal community. Protection grants and digital protection. Help in foreign litigation costs. Public protector in a country e.g. South Africa…Know what’s there for me. We need to build a culture of law which means a sense of responsibility. This is a long term project. When we use law to protect our rights, we will build a culture of law. Rights come from responsibilities. We cannot take our precious blue planet for granted.|
|Cultivating an enduring climate justice movement for enhanced peoples ownership in the international climate action processes||Climate action must be fair, equitable, ecologically just and responsive to the needs of those most vulnerable in the society.|
|Climate justice movement and transnational activism and solidarity – the case of Germany and Europe||Addressing Global inequality, just transition, jobs and striking the balance between health of the planet and development. Deeper geographies of climate justice and its evolution in various contexts. Right pointing backhand index Catalyzing Change in the context of changing climate. Right pointing backhand index Intra and intergenerational collaborations in the transition towards low-carbon.|
|Campaign Tactics and strategies (practicals).||Not all human populations are equal in the face of the climate challenge. Paradoxically, the poorest countries are often those most affected by the uncontrolled global warming. Making matters worse for Africa is that we do not have the technological know-how and the needed resources for effective: Response, Coping and resilience mechanism. According to Rice & Atkins(2009), Public Communication campaigns refers to purposive attempts to inform or influence behaviors in large audiences within a specified time period using an organized set of communication activities featuring an array of mediated messages in multiple channels generally to produce non- commercial benefits to individuals and society.|
|Participatory alternatives, technical solutions and fusions for the future||Self-organized sessions on participatory alternatives (coordinated sessions for participants based on their backgrounds)||A draft framework that may be adopted for developing course contents/curriculum. To be shared upon request… This can be locally adopted and tailor made to suit an organizations priorities and interests of the communities/institutions being engaged.|
|Nurturing the movement from below: the case of PACJA, successes and lessons in articulating peoples legitimate voices in global climate politics||Building a sustainable, bottom-up, people-centered, inclusive, gender-responsive and representative platform capable of addressing the diversity of the African continent- The case study of PACJA||Sustainable development priorities revolve around people. Many African countries are projected to almost double their populations in 30 years. Fertility is the key driver of Africa’s rapid growth. Impact of rapid population growth: increase in demand for goods and services, and underlying causes of land use changes. Population, Environment and Development (PED); The complex, multiple and reciprocal relationships that exist among population, environment and development factors anytime and Everywhere. The environment performs critical basic functions: Provides life support systems, Supplies vital resources and acts as a sink. Population dynamics have an .impact on these functions. Population, Environment and Development (PED)- encompasses the integration of Population/FP into broad environment and other development sectors including: Climate change, biodiversity, health, Food Security, Resilience and Economic Growth/Livelihoods.|
|The science and art of networking in movement building||Movement – force (group of people), it meets a certain need at a time and when it’s done, it can be dissolved or can metamorphose into something else like an organization. It’s made up of different and sovereign units coming together for a common cause… without their individual identity. ~If you are not ready to compromise, Don even come to the negotiation table. It can be or take a form of a loose thing, united, network or structure with or without legal entity. ~Association/organization. Is mostly systematized, organized, registered unit with legal ability to sue and be sued in a court of law. Pros and Cons of Networking. Despite the advantages be careful: Not to abuse it especially in terms of the content being shared.Not to abuse the timing, choice of networking platforms for content display.Do not just be clearing and forwarding house of clearing agent.Be original in your content.|
|Navigating geopolitical dynamics in Climate change advocacy||Africa and Climate Change Although as a continent Africa has contributed very little in causing Climate Chang, She remains the most vulnerable continent to climate variability and change. A situation that is aggravated by the interaction of multiple stresses, including high dependence on rainfed agriculture, widespread poverty and weak adaptive capacity. Everyone’s Call According to Article 4 paragraph 2 of the Paris Agreement each Party shall prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions (NDCs) that it intends to achieve. NDCs is a common framework that commits all countries to put forward their best efforts as defined in their NDCs but does not legally bind to their implementation or achievement of their goals.|
|Navigating the era of the pandemic and climate emergency||Just transition, jobs for the people and livelihoods||“It is impossible to care for each other more or differently than we care for the earth” Wendell Berry|
|Protection and upholding environmental and human rights for environmental (and climate justice) defenders||Much of human activity in the last couple centuries has been on the offense; Built capital driven economic systems around exploitation, manipulation, and competition; we need defenders. Earth Community Defenders: According to UNEP definition “individuals and groups who, in their personal or professional capacity and in a peaceful manner, strive to protect and promote human rights relating to the environment, including water, air, land, flora and fauna”. Frontline defenders: Communities and particularly indigenous communities are often at the frontline of mining, logging, and agribusiness that encroaches into homelands The International Human Rights of Environmental/Climate Many States are parties to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Right to lifeFreedom of Expression Right to petition the government Right to hold an assembly and form an associationRight to political participation Increase in number of the deaths of Environmental and Climate justice defenders (Joannah Stuchbury – Kenya, Mama Fikile Ntshangase, South Africa, Sikhosiphi Rhadebe- South Africa) around the globe is not only alarming but a very great injustice. Activists need to be protected ad their rights upheld. Their freedom of expression and acknowledged and right to protest against injustices and demand for change upheld. Moreover, justice for those brutally killed need to be ensured. Activists must know their rights and how to file for complaints.|
|Ensuring Gender Justice in Global Climate Movement||Implementation of the Lima Work Program on Gender. Implementation of the Global Environment Fund (GEF) Gender Equality Action Plan. Clear fixed timelines for achieving genderresponsive climate policy.|
|Intergenerational equity and youth engagement in Climate Justice Movement||The African population keeps growing young by the day. This provides aa unique opportunity for young people to engage in activities that will ensure that restoration and rehabilitation of the degraded land ad ecosystems is achieved. Youths need to be actively involved in the movement in order to ensure they have a say and act also for their present and future. We owe to ourselves and to our future generation to ensure that we conserve this planet.|
|Faith, Climate Justice and Moral Question on Action and Responsibility in Tackling Climate Crisis||All God’s creatures are interconnected: A moral imperative for car. Environmental crisis caused by “Christianity dualism of man and nature. Nature is for the service of man and that humans should subdue. We need to overcome our anthropogenic attitudes. Construct our theologies to include non-human creating concerns. According to the Bible, God of Israel cares for and natures all he has created. We should emulate him.|
|Closing ceremony and awarding of certificates||Climate Justice Course; Botany, naming of plants; Psychosocial and economic intervention in job seeking.|
Advocacy world calls for a lot of sacrifice because it is tough. We need unity of purpose because it is our role to expand. It’s risky to be an environmental activist but this is the only way we have. Defenders network for Kenya. We must sacrifice as young people. We revolutionary missionary. We can do this as a small team. We had political freedom in the mid-1950s in the continent, it’s time for environmental freedom.
The call by Dr. Mithika Mwenda, Executive Director of PACJA: “I challenge the young people, rise up and take the advocacy mantle to drive climate activism around Africa. The liberation wars of the 60’s was about political freedom. Now the youth must wage war for ecological freedom, climate justice and economic freedom” was a rallying cry to all the youths in the continent.